# is_biconnected#

is_biconnected(G)[source]#

Returns True if the graph is biconnected, False otherwise.

A graph is biconnected if, and only if, it cannot be disconnected by removing only one node (and all edges incident on that node). If removing a node increases the number of disconnected components in the graph, that node is called an articulation point, or cut vertex. A biconnected graph has no articulation points.

Parameters:
GNetworkX Graph

An undirected graph.

Returns:
biconnectedbool

True if the graph is biconnected, False otherwise.

Raises:
NetworkXNotImplemented

If the input graph is not undirected.

Notes

The algorithm to find articulation points and biconnected components is implemented using a non-recursive depth-first-search (DFS) that keeps track of the highest level that back edges reach in the DFS tree. A node `n` is an articulation point if, and only if, there exists a subtree rooted at `n` such that there is no back edge from any successor of `n` that links to a predecessor of `n` in the DFS tree. By keeping track of all the edges traversed by the DFS we can obtain the biconnected components because all edges of a bicomponent will be traversed consecutively between articulation points.

References

[1]

Hopcroft, J.; Tarjan, R. (1973). “Efficient algorithms for graph manipulation”. Communications of the ACM 16: 372–378. doi:10.1145/362248.362272

Examples

```>>> G = nx.path_graph(4)
>>> print(nx.is_biconnected(G))
False