# number_of_spanning_trees#

number_of_spanning_trees(G, *, root=None, weight=None)[source]#

Returns the number of spanning trees in `G`.

A spanning tree for an undirected graph is a tree that connects all nodes in the graph. For a directed graph, the analog of a spanning tree is called a (spanning) arborescence. The arborescence includes a unique directed path from the `root` node to each other node. The graph must be weakly connected, and the root must be a node that includes all nodes as successors [3]. Note that to avoid discussing sink-roots and reverse-arborescences, we have reversed the edge orientation from [3] and use the in-degree laplacian.

This function (when `weight` is `None`) returns the number of spanning trees for an undirected graph and the number of arborescences from a single root node for a directed graph. When `weight` is the name of an edge attribute which holds the weight value of each edge, the function returns the sum over all trees of the multiplicative weight of each tree. That is, the weight of the tree is the product of its edge weights.

Kirchoff’s Tree Matrix Theorem states that any cofactor of the Laplacian matrix of a graph is the number of spanning trees in the graph. (Here we use cofactors for a diagonal entry so that the cofactor becomes the determinant of the matrix with one row and its matching column removed.) For a weighted Laplacian matrix, the cofactor is the sum across all spanning trees of the multiplicative weight of each tree. That is, the weight of each tree is the product of its edge weights. The theorem is also known as Kirchhoff’s theorem [1] and the Matrix-Tree theorem [2].

For directed graphs, a similar theorem (Tutte’s Theorem) holds with the cofactor chosen to be the one with row and column removed that correspond to the root. The cofactor is the number of arborescences with the specified node as root. And the weighted version gives the sum of the arborescence weights with root `root`. The arborescence weight is the product of its edge weights.

Parameters:
GNetworkX graph
rootnode

A node in the directed graph `G` that has all nodes as descendants. (This is ignored for undirected graphs.)

weightstring or None, optional (default=None)

The name of the edge attribute holding the edge weight. If `None`, then each edge is assumed to have a weight of 1.

Returns:
Number
Undirected graphs:

The number of spanning trees of the graph `G`. Or the sum of all spanning tree weights of the graph `G` where the weight of a tree is the product of its edge weights.

Directed graphs:

The number of arborescences of `G` rooted at node `root`. Or the sum of all arborescence weights of the graph `G` with specified root where the weight of an arborescence is the product of its edge weights.

Raises:
NetworkXPointlessConcept

If `G` does not contain any nodes.

NetworkXError

If the graph `G` is directed and the root node is not specified or is not in G.

Notes

Self-loops are excluded. Multi-edges are contracted in one edge equal to the sum of the weights.

References

[1]

Wikipedia “Kirchhoff’s theorem.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kirchhoff%27s_theorem

[2]

Kirchhoff, G. R. Über die Auflösung der Gleichungen, auf welche man bei der Untersuchung der linearen Vertheilung Galvanischer Ströme geführt wird Annalen der Physik und Chemie, vol. 72, pp. 497-508, 1847.

[3] (1,2)

Margoliash, J. “Matrix-Tree Theorem for Directed Graphs” https://www.math.uchicago.edu/~may/VIGRE/VIGRE2010/REUPapers/Margoliash.pdf

Examples

```>>> G = nx.complete_graph(5)
>>> round(nx.number_of_spanning_trees(G))
125
```
```>>> G = nx.Graph()