Note
This documents the development version of NetworkX. Documentation for the current release can be found here.
networkx.algorithms.cycles.simple_cycles¶

simple_cycles
(G)[source]¶ Find simple cycles (elementary circuits) of a directed graph.
A
simple cycle
, orelementary circuit
, is a closed path where no node appears twice. Two elementary circuits are distinct if they are not cyclic permutations of each other.This is a nonrecursive, iterator/generator version of Johnson’s algorithm [1]. There may be better algorithms for some cases [2] [3].
 Parameters
 GNetworkX DiGraph
A directed graph
 Returns
 cycle_generator: generator
A generator that produces elementary cycles of the graph. Each cycle is represented by a list of nodes along the cycle.
See also
Notes
The implementation follows pp. 7980 in [1].
The time complexity is \(O((n+e)(c+1))\) for \(n\) nodes, \(e\) edges and \(c\) elementary circuits.
References
 1(1,2)
Finding all the elementary circuits of a directed graph. D. B. Johnson, SIAM Journal on Computing 4, no. 1, 7784, 1975. https://doi.org/10.1137/0204007
 2
Enumerating the cycles of a digraph: a new preprocessing strategy. G. Loizou and P. Thanish, Information Sciences, v. 27, 163182, 1982.
 3
A search strategy for the elementary cycles of a directed graph. J.L. Szwarcfiter and P.E. Lauer, BIT NUMERICAL MATHEMATICS, v. 16, no. 2, 192204, 1976.
Examples
>>> edges = [(0, 0), (0, 1), (0, 2), (1, 2), (2, 0), (2, 1), (2, 2)] >>> G = nx.DiGraph(edges) >>> len(list(nx.simple_cycles(G))) 5
To filter the cycles so that they don’t include certain nodes or edges, copy your graph and eliminate those nodes or edges before calling
>>> copyG = G.copy() >>> copyG.remove_nodes_from([1]) >>> copyG.remove_edges_from([(0, 1)]) >>> len(list(nx.simple_cycles(copyG))) 3