# normalized_laplacian_matrix#

normalized_laplacian_matrix(G, nodelist=None, weight='weight')[source]#

Returns the normalized Laplacian matrix of G.

The normalized graph Laplacian is the matrix

$N = D^{-1/2} L D^{-1/2}$

where L is the graph Laplacian and D is the diagonal matrix of node degrees [1].

Parameters:
Ggraph

A NetworkX graph

nodelistlist, optional

The rows and columns are ordered according to the nodes in nodelist. If nodelist is None, then the ordering is produced by G.nodes().

weightstring or None, optional (default=’weight’)

The edge data key used to compute each value in the matrix. If None, then each edge has weight 1.

Returns:
NSciPy sparse array

The normalized Laplacian matrix of G.

Notes

For MultiGraph, the edges weights are summed. See to_numpy_array() for other options.

If the Graph contains selfloops, D is defined as diag(sum(A, 1)), where A is the adjacency matrix [2].

This calculation uses the out-degree of the graph G. To use the in-degree for calculations instead, use G.reverse(copy=False) and take the transpose.

For an unnormalized output, use laplacian_matrix.

References

[1]

Fan Chung-Graham, Spectral Graph Theory, CBMS Regional Conference Series in Mathematics, Number 92, 1997.

[2]

Steve Butler, Interlacing For Weighted Graphs Using The Normalized Laplacian, Electronic Journal of Linear Algebra, Volume 16, pp. 90-98, March 2007.

[3]

Langville, Amy N., and Carl D. Meyer. Google’s PageRank and Beyond: The Science of Search Engine Rankings. Princeton University Press, 2006.

Examples

>>> import numpy as np
>>> edges = [
...     (1, 2),
...     (2, 1),
...     (2, 4),
...     (4, 3),
...     (3, 4),
... ]
>>> DiG = nx.DiGraph(edges)
>>> print(nx.normalized_laplacian_matrix(DiG).toarray())
[[ 1.         -0.70710678  0.          0.        ]
[-0.70710678  1.         -0.70710678  0.        ]
[ 0.          0.          1.         -1.        ]
[ 0.          0.         -1.          1.        ]]


Notice that node 4 is represented by the third column and row. This is because by default the row/column order is the order of G.nodes (i.e. the node added order – in the edgelist, 4 first appears in (2, 4), before node 3 in edge (4, 3).) To control the node order of the matrix, use the nodelist argument.

>>> print(nx.normalized_laplacian_matrix(DiG, nodelist=[1, 2, 3, 4]).toarray())
[[ 1.         -0.70710678  0.          0.        ]
[-0.70710678  1.          0.         -0.70710678]
[ 0.          0.          1.         -1.        ]
[ 0.          0.         -1.          1.        ]]
>>> G = nx.Graph(edges)
>>> print(nx.normalized_laplacian_matrix(G).toarray())
[[ 1.         -0.70710678  0.          0.        ]
[-0.70710678  1.         -0.5         0.        ]
[ 0.         -0.5         1.         -0.70710678]
[ 0.          0.         -0.70710678  1.        ]]