fiedler_vector(G, weight='weight', normalized=False, tol=1e-08, method='tracemin_pcg', seed=None)[source]#

Returns the Fiedler vector of a connected undirected graph.

The Fiedler vector of a connected undirected graph is the eigenvector corresponding to the second smallest eigenvalue of the Laplacian matrix of the graph.

GNetworkX graph

An undirected graph.

weightobject, optional (default: None)

The data key used to determine the weight of each edge. If None, then each edge has unit weight.

normalizedbool, optional (default: False)

Whether the normalized Laplacian matrix is used.

tolfloat, optional (default: 1e-8)

Tolerance of relative residual in eigenvalue computation.

methodstring, optional (default: ‘tracemin_pcg’)

Method of eigenvalue computation. It must be one of the tracemin options shown below (TraceMIN), ‘lanczos’ (Lanczos iteration) or ‘lobpcg’ (LOBPCG).

The TraceMIN algorithm uses a linear system solver. The following values allow specifying the solver to be used.




Preconditioned conjugate gradient method


LU factorization

seedinteger, random_state, or None (default)

Indicator of random number generation state. See Randomness.

fiedler_vectorNumPy array of floats.

Fiedler vector.


If G is directed.


If G has less than two nodes or is not connected.

See also



Edge weights are interpreted by their absolute values. For MultiGraph’s, weights of parallel edges are summed. Zero-weighted edges are ignored.


Given a connected graph the signs of the values in the Fiedler vector can be used to partition the graph into two components.

>>> G = nx.barbell_graph(5, 0)
>>> nx.fiedler_vector(G, normalized=True, seed=1)
array([-0.32864129, -0.32864129, -0.32864129, -0.32864129, -0.26072899,
        0.26072899,  0.32864129,  0.32864129,  0.32864129,  0.32864129])

The connected components are the two 5-node cliques of the barbell graph.