local_constraint(G, u, v, weight=None)[source]#

Returns the local constraint on the node u with respect to the node v in the graph G.

Formally, the local constraint on u with respect to v, denoted \(\ell(u, v)\), is defined by

\[\ell(u, v) = \left(p_{uv} + \sum_{w \in N(v)} p_{uw} p_{wv}\right)^2,\]

where \(N(v)\) is the set of neighbors of \(v\) and \(p_{uv}\) is the normalized mutual weight of the (directed or undirected) edges joining \(u\) and \(v\), for each vertex \(u\) and \(v\) [1]. The mutual weight of \(u\) and \(v\) is the sum of the weights of edges joining them (edge weights are assumed to be one if the graph is unweighted).

GNetworkX graph

The graph containing u and v. This can be either directed or undirected.


A node in the graph G.


A node in the graph G.

weightNone or string, optional

If None, all edge weights are considered equal. Otherwise holds the name of the edge attribute used as weight.


The constraint of the node v in the graph G.

See also




Burt, Ronald S. “Structural holes and good ideas”. American Journal of Sociology (110): 349–399.