# modular_product#

modular_product(G, H)[source]#

Returns the Modular product of G and H.

The modular product of G and H is the graph $$M = G \nabla H$$, consisting of the node set $$V(M) = V(G) \times V(H)$$ that is the Cartesian product of the node sets of G and H. Further, M contains an edge ((u, v), (x, y)):

• if u is adjacent to x in G and v is adjacent to y in H, or

• if u is not adjacent to x in G and v is not adjacent to y in H.

More formally:

E(M) = {((u, v), (x, y)) | ((u, x) in E(G) and (v, y) in E(H)) or
((u, x) not in E(G) and (v, y) not in E(H))}

Parameters:
G, H: NetworkX graphs

The graphs to take the modular product of.

Returns:
M: NetworkX graph

The Modular product of G and H.

Raises:
NetworkXNotImplemented

If G is not a simple graph.

Notes

The modular product is defined in [1] and was first introduced as the weak modular product.

The modular product reduces the problem of counting isomorphic subgraphs in G and H to the problem of counting cliques in M. The subgraphs of G and H that are induced by the nodes of a clique in M are isomorphic [2] [3].

References

[1]

R. Hammack, W. Imrich, and S. Klavžar, “Handbook of Product Graphs”, CRC Press, 2011.

[2]

H. G. Barrow and R. M. Burstall, “Subgraph isomorphism, matching relational structures and maximal cliques”, Information Processing Letters, vol. 4, issue 4, pp. 83-84, 1976, https://doi.org/10.1016/0020-0190(76)90049-1.

[3]

V. G. Vizing, “Reduction of the problem of isomorphism and isomorphic entrance to the task of finding the nondensity of a graph.” Proc. Third All-Union Conference on Problems of Theoretical Cybernetics. 1974.

Examples

>>> G = nx.cycle_graph(4)
>>> H = nx.path_graph(2)
>>> M = nx.modular_product(G, H)
>>> list(M)
[(0, 0), (0, 1), (1, 0), (1, 1), (2, 0), (2, 1), (3, 0), (3, 1)]
>>> print(M)
Graph with 8 nodes and 8 edges