Returns a directed representation of the graph.


A directed graph with the same name, same nodes, and with each edge (u, v, data) replaced by two directed edges (u, v, data) and (v, u, data).


This returns a “deepcopy” of the edge, node, and graph attributes which attempts to completely copy all of the data and references.

This is in contrast to the similar D=DiGraph(G) which returns a shallow copy of the data.

See the Python copy module for more information on shallow and deep copies,

Warning: If you have subclassed Graph to use dict-like objects in the data structure, those changes do not transfer to the DiGraph created by this method.


>>> G = nx.Graph()  # or MultiGraph, etc
>>> G.add_edge(0, 1)
>>> H = G.to_directed()
>>> list(H.edges)
[(0, 1), (1, 0)]

If already directed, return a (deep) copy

>>> G = nx.DiGraph()  # or MultiDiGraph, etc
>>> G.add_edge(0, 1)
>>> H = G.to_directed()
>>> list(H.edges)
[(0, 1)]