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power(G, k)[source]

Returns the specified power of a graph.

The k-th power of a simple graph G = (V, E) is the graph G^k whose vertex set is V, two distinct vertices u,v are adjacent in G^k if and only if the shortest path distance between u and v in G is at most k.

  • G (graph) – A NetworkX simple graph object.
  • k (positive integer) – The power to which to raise the graph G.

G to the k-th power.

Return type:

NetworkX simple graph

  • exc:ValueError – If the exponent k is not positive.
  • NetworkXError – If G is not a simple graph.


>>> G = nx.path_graph(4)
>>> nx.power(G,2).edges()
[(0, 1), (0, 2), (1, 2), (1, 3), (2, 3)]
>>> nx.power(G,3).edges()
[(0, 1), (0, 2), (0, 3), (1, 2), (1, 3), (2, 3)]

A complete graph of order n is returned if k is greater than equal to n/2 for a cycle graph of even order n, and if k is greater than equal to (n-1)/2 for a cycle graph of odd order.

>>> G = nx.cycle_graph(5)
>>> nx.power(G,2).edges() == nx.complete_graph(5).edges()
>>> G = nx.cycle_graph(8)
>>> nx.power(G,4).edges() == nx.complete_graph(8).edges()


    1. Bondy, U. S. R. Murty, Graph Theory. Springer, 2008.


Exercise 3.1.6 of Graph Theory by J. A. Bondy and U. S. R. Murty [1].