# Source code for networkx.algorithms.flow.mincost

```
"""
Minimum cost flow algorithms on directed connected graphs.
"""
__all__ = ["min_cost_flow_cost", "min_cost_flow", "cost_of_flow", "max_flow_min_cost"]
import networkx as nx
[docs]
@nx._dispatchable(
node_attrs="demand", edge_attrs={"capacity": float("inf"), "weight": 0}
)
def min_cost_flow_cost(G, demand="demand", capacity="capacity", weight="weight"):
r"""Find the cost of a minimum cost flow satisfying all demands in digraph G.
G is a digraph with edge costs and capacities and in which nodes
have demand, i.e., they want to send or receive some amount of
flow. A negative demand means that the node wants to send flow, a
positive demand means that the node want to receive flow. A flow on
the digraph G satisfies all demand if the net flow into each node
is equal to the demand of that node.
Parameters
----------
G : NetworkX graph
DiGraph on which a minimum cost flow satisfying all demands is
to be found.
demand : string
Nodes of the graph G are expected to have an attribute demand
that indicates how much flow a node wants to send (negative
demand) or receive (positive demand). Note that the sum of the
demands should be 0 otherwise the problem in not feasible. If
this attribute is not present, a node is considered to have 0
demand. Default value: 'demand'.
capacity : string
Edges of the graph G are expected to have an attribute capacity
that indicates how much flow the edge can support. If this
attribute is not present, the edge is considered to have
infinite capacity. Default value: 'capacity'.
weight : string
Edges of the graph G are expected to have an attribute weight
that indicates the cost incurred by sending one unit of flow on
that edge. If not present, the weight is considered to be 0.
Default value: 'weight'.
Returns
-------
flowCost : integer, float
Cost of a minimum cost flow satisfying all demands.
Raises
------
NetworkXError
This exception is raised if the input graph is not directed or
not connected.
NetworkXUnfeasible
This exception is raised in the following situations:
* The sum of the demands is not zero. Then, there is no
flow satisfying all demands.
* There is no flow satisfying all demand.
NetworkXUnbounded
This exception is raised if the digraph G has a cycle of
negative cost and infinite capacity. Then, the cost of a flow
satisfying all demands is unbounded below.
See also
--------
cost_of_flow, max_flow_min_cost, min_cost_flow, network_simplex
Notes
-----
This algorithm is not guaranteed to work if edge weights or demands
are floating point numbers (overflows and roundoff errors can
cause problems). As a workaround you can use integer numbers by
multiplying the relevant edge attributes by a convenient
constant factor (eg 100).
Examples
--------
A simple example of a min cost flow problem.
>>> G = nx.DiGraph()
>>> G.add_node("a", demand=-5)
>>> G.add_node("d", demand=5)
>>> G.add_edge("a", "b", weight=3, capacity=4)
>>> G.add_edge("a", "c", weight=6, capacity=10)
>>> G.add_edge("b", "d", weight=1, capacity=9)
>>> G.add_edge("c", "d", weight=2, capacity=5)
>>> flowCost = nx.min_cost_flow_cost(G)
>>> flowCost
24
"""
return nx.network_simplex(G, demand=demand, capacity=capacity, weight=weight)[0]
[docs]
@nx._dispatchable(
node_attrs="demand", edge_attrs={"capacity": float("inf"), "weight": 0}
)
def min_cost_flow(G, demand="demand", capacity="capacity", weight="weight"):
r"""Returns a minimum cost flow satisfying all demands in digraph G.
G is a digraph with edge costs and capacities and in which nodes
have demand, i.e., they want to send or receive some amount of
flow. A negative demand means that the node wants to send flow, a
positive demand means that the node want to receive flow. A flow on
the digraph G satisfies all demand if the net flow into each node
is equal to the demand of that node.
Parameters
----------
G : NetworkX graph
DiGraph on which a minimum cost flow satisfying all demands is
to be found.
demand : string
Nodes of the graph G are expected to have an attribute demand
that indicates how much flow a node wants to send (negative
demand) or receive (positive demand). Note that the sum of the
demands should be 0 otherwise the problem in not feasible. If
this attribute is not present, a node is considered to have 0
demand. Default value: 'demand'.
capacity : string
Edges of the graph G are expected to have an attribute capacity
that indicates how much flow the edge can support. If this
attribute is not present, the edge is considered to have
infinite capacity. Default value: 'capacity'.
weight : string
Edges of the graph G are expected to have an attribute weight
that indicates the cost incurred by sending one unit of flow on
that edge. If not present, the weight is considered to be 0.
Default value: 'weight'.
Returns
-------
flowDict : dictionary
Dictionary of dictionaries keyed by nodes such that
flowDict[u][v] is the flow edge (u, v).
Raises
------
NetworkXError
This exception is raised if the input graph is not directed or
not connected.
NetworkXUnfeasible
This exception is raised in the following situations:
* The sum of the demands is not zero. Then, there is no
flow satisfying all demands.
* There is no flow satisfying all demand.
NetworkXUnbounded
This exception is raised if the digraph G has a cycle of
negative cost and infinite capacity. Then, the cost of a flow
satisfying all demands is unbounded below.
See also
--------
cost_of_flow, max_flow_min_cost, min_cost_flow_cost, network_simplex
Notes
-----
This algorithm is not guaranteed to work if edge weights or demands
are floating point numbers (overflows and roundoff errors can
cause problems). As a workaround you can use integer numbers by
multiplying the relevant edge attributes by a convenient
constant factor (eg 100).
Examples
--------
A simple example of a min cost flow problem.
>>> G = nx.DiGraph()
>>> G.add_node("a", demand=-5)
>>> G.add_node("d", demand=5)
>>> G.add_edge("a", "b", weight=3, capacity=4)
>>> G.add_edge("a", "c", weight=6, capacity=10)
>>> G.add_edge("b", "d", weight=1, capacity=9)
>>> G.add_edge("c", "d", weight=2, capacity=5)
>>> flowDict = nx.min_cost_flow(G)
>>> flowDict
{'a': {'b': 4, 'c': 1}, 'd': {}, 'b': {'d': 4}, 'c': {'d': 1}}
"""
return nx.network_simplex(G, demand=demand, capacity=capacity, weight=weight)[1]
[docs]
@nx._dispatchable(edge_attrs={"weight": 0})
def cost_of_flow(G, flowDict, weight="weight"):
"""Compute the cost of the flow given by flowDict on graph G.
Note that this function does not check for the validity of the
flow flowDict. This function will fail if the graph G and the
flow don't have the same edge set.
Parameters
----------
G : NetworkX graph
DiGraph on which a minimum cost flow satisfying all demands is
to be found.
weight : string
Edges of the graph G are expected to have an attribute weight
that indicates the cost incurred by sending one unit of flow on
that edge. If not present, the weight is considered to be 0.
Default value: 'weight'.
flowDict : dictionary
Dictionary of dictionaries keyed by nodes such that
flowDict[u][v] is the flow edge (u, v).
Returns
-------
cost : Integer, float
The total cost of the flow. This is given by the sum over all
edges of the product of the edge's flow and the edge's weight.
See also
--------
max_flow_min_cost, min_cost_flow, min_cost_flow_cost, network_simplex
Notes
-----
This algorithm is not guaranteed to work if edge weights or demands
are floating point numbers (overflows and roundoff errors can
cause problems). As a workaround you can use integer numbers by
multiplying the relevant edge attributes by a convenient
constant factor (eg 100).
Examples
--------
>>> G = nx.DiGraph()
>>> G.add_node("a", demand=-5)
>>> G.add_node("d", demand=5)
>>> G.add_edge("a", "b", weight=3, capacity=4)
>>> G.add_edge("a", "c", weight=6, capacity=10)
>>> G.add_edge("b", "d", weight=1, capacity=9)
>>> G.add_edge("c", "d", weight=2, capacity=5)
>>> flowDict = nx.min_cost_flow(G)
>>> flowDict
{'a': {'b': 4, 'c': 1}, 'd': {}, 'b': {'d': 4}, 'c': {'d': 1}}
>>> nx.cost_of_flow(G, flowDict)
24
"""
return sum((flowDict[u][v] * d.get(weight, 0) for u, v, d in G.edges(data=True)))
[docs]
@nx._dispatchable(edge_attrs={"capacity": float("inf"), "weight": 0})
def max_flow_min_cost(G, s, t, capacity="capacity", weight="weight"):
"""Returns a maximum (s, t)-flow of minimum cost.
G is a digraph with edge costs and capacities. There is a source
node s and a sink node t. This function finds a maximum flow from
s to t whose total cost is minimized.
Parameters
----------
G : NetworkX graph
DiGraph on which a minimum cost flow satisfying all demands is
to be found.
s: node label
Source of the flow.
t: node label
Destination of the flow.
capacity: string
Edges of the graph G are expected to have an attribute capacity
that indicates how much flow the edge can support. If this
attribute is not present, the edge is considered to have
infinite capacity. Default value: 'capacity'.
weight: string
Edges of the graph G are expected to have an attribute weight
that indicates the cost incurred by sending one unit of flow on
that edge. If not present, the weight is considered to be 0.
Default value: 'weight'.
Returns
-------
flowDict: dictionary
Dictionary of dictionaries keyed by nodes such that
flowDict[u][v] is the flow edge (u, v).
Raises
------
NetworkXError
This exception is raised if the input graph is not directed or
not connected.
NetworkXUnbounded
This exception is raised if there is an infinite capacity path
from s to t in G. In this case there is no maximum flow. This
exception is also raised if the digraph G has a cycle of
negative cost and infinite capacity. Then, the cost of a flow
is unbounded below.
See also
--------
cost_of_flow, min_cost_flow, min_cost_flow_cost, network_simplex
Notes
-----
This algorithm is not guaranteed to work if edge weights or demands
are floating point numbers (overflows and roundoff errors can
cause problems). As a workaround you can use integer numbers by
multiplying the relevant edge attributes by a convenient
constant factor (eg 100).
Examples
--------
>>> G = nx.DiGraph()
>>> G.add_edges_from(
... [
... (1, 2, {"capacity": 12, "weight": 4}),
... (1, 3, {"capacity": 20, "weight": 6}),
... (2, 3, {"capacity": 6, "weight": -3}),
... (2, 6, {"capacity": 14, "weight": 1}),
... (3, 4, {"weight": 9}),
... (3, 5, {"capacity": 10, "weight": 5}),
... (4, 2, {"capacity": 19, "weight": 13}),
... (4, 5, {"capacity": 4, "weight": 0}),
... (5, 7, {"capacity": 28, "weight": 2}),
... (6, 5, {"capacity": 11, "weight": 1}),
... (6, 7, {"weight": 8}),
... (7, 4, {"capacity": 6, "weight": 6}),
... ]
... )
>>> mincostFlow = nx.max_flow_min_cost(G, 1, 7)
>>> mincost = nx.cost_of_flow(G, mincostFlow)
>>> mincost
373
>>> from networkx.algorithms.flow import maximum_flow
>>> maxFlow = maximum_flow(G, 1, 7)[1]
>>> nx.cost_of_flow(G, maxFlow) >= mincost
True
>>> mincostFlowValue = sum((mincostFlow[u][7] for u in G.predecessors(7))) - sum(
... (mincostFlow[7][v] for v in G.successors(7))
... )
>>> mincostFlowValue == nx.maximum_flow_value(G, 1, 7)
True
"""
maxFlow = nx.maximum_flow_value(G, s, t, capacity=capacity)
H = nx.DiGraph(G)
H.add_node(s, demand=-maxFlow)
H.add_node(t, demand=maxFlow)
return min_cost_flow(H, capacity=capacity, weight=weight)
```