This documents an unmaintained version of NetworkX. Please upgrade to a maintained version and see the current NetworkX documentation.


gnr_graph(n, p, create_using=None, seed=None)[source]

Returns the growing network with redirection (GNR) digraph with n nodes and redirection probability p.

The GNR graph is built by adding nodes one at a time with a link to one previously added node. The previous target node is chosen uniformly at random. With probabiliy p the link is instead “redirected” to the successor node of the target.

The graph is always a (directed) tree.

  • n (int) – The number of nodes for the generated graph.
  • p (float) – The redirection probability.
  • create_using (NetworkX graph constructor, optional (default DiGraph)) – Graph type to create. If graph instance, then cleared before populated.
  • seed (integer, random_state, or None (default)) – Indicator of random number generation state. See Randomness.


To create the undirected GNR graph, use the to_directed() method:

>>> D = nx.gnr_graph(10, 0.5)  # the GNR graph
>>> G = D.to_undirected()  # the undirected version


[1]P. L. Krapivsky and S. Redner, Organization of Growing Random Networks, Phys. Rev. E, 63, 066123, 2001.