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Return a directed copy of the graph.

Returns :

G : MultiDiGraph

A deepcopy of the graph.


If edges in both directions (u,v) and (v,u) exist in the graph, attributes for the new undirected edge will be a combination of the attributes of the directed edges. The edge data is updated in the (arbitrary) order that the edges are encountered. For more customized control of the edge attributes use add_edge().

This returns a “deepcopy” of the edge, node, and graph attributes which attempts to completely copy all of the data and references.

This is in contrast to the similar G=DiGraph(D) which returns a shallow copy of the data.

See the Python copy module for more information on shallow and deep copies, http://docs.python.org/library/copy.html.


>>> G = nx.Graph()   # or MultiGraph, etc
>>> G.add_path([0,1])
>>> H = G.to_directed()
>>> H.edges()
[(0, 1), (1, 0)]

If already directed, return a (deep) copy

>>> G = nx.MultiDiGraph()
>>> G.add_path([0,1])
>>> H = G.to_directed()
>>> H.edges()
[(0, 1)]